ADHD is one of the most widely researched disorders affecting students today. ADHD affects approximately 3-7% of the school age population in the United States.
(Sigelman & Rider, 2006) There are several current evidence based treatments for ADHD in Children and Adolescents. These include stimulant medication and behavioral interventions such as parent training and school-based interventions. (Raggi & Chronis, 2006)
Several medications are currently used to treat ADHD, such as, Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate, Dexedrine, Cylert, Adderall, and others. Medical treatment of ADHD has been shown to have a high level of effect on numerous symptoms caused by the disorder. Stimulant medications in particular have been shown to produce improvements in functioning in a number of areas affected by ADHD, such as on-task behavior, compliance, task completion, task accuracy, and impulse control.
(Raggi & Chronis, 2006) However, despite all the positive effects of stimulant medications that have been shown in clinical studies, very few studies have been done that show the long term academic outcomes of students who use stimulant medications. (Raggi & Chronis, 2006)
Behavioral interventions consist of parents, teachers and children learning specific techniques and skills that will help improve the ADHD child’s behavior and may include such things as individual or group counseling, psychobehavioral or cognitive behavioral therapy, self instruction, social or parenting skills training, and support groups. Most Behavioral management programs are carried out in home and school, and include or should include training of parents and teachers. Parents and teachers then use the skills in their daily interactions with children with ADHD, resulting in improvement in the children's functioning in the key areas noted above.
(Sigelman & Rider, 2006)
The most effective treatment plan for ADHD at this point in time has been shown to be Multimodal treatment. A combination of medication, Behavioral, and contextual interventions seems to be the best practice in helping students finds successful outcomes in academics and in overall academic performance including behavioral and social components.
(Sigelman & Rider, 2006) (Faraone, 2005) Multimodal treatment options may have multiple components, including medication, behavioral training for student and parents, and contextual support. (Sigelman & Rider, 2006) (Barkley, 1998)
Barkley, R. A. (1998). Treatment of Childhood Disorders: Second Edition. New York: The Guiliford Press.
Faraone, B. &. (2005, July 16). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. www.thelancet.com , pp. 237-248.
Raggi, V. L., & Chronis, A. M. (2006). Interventions to Address the Academic Impairment of Children and Adolescents with ADHD. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review , 9 (2), 85-111.